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The Competing Nature-Based Livelihood-Strategies: Artisanal Small-Scale Mining (ASM) Perspectives in Agricultural-Communities in Umzingwane District, Zimbabwe

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dc.contributor.author Moyo, Funa
dc.contributor.author Ncube, Mthuthukisi
dc.contributor.author Ndlovu, Thabo
dc.date.accessioned 2022-12-06T13:07:38Z
dc.date.available 2022-12-06T13:07:38Z
dc.date.issued 2022-12-01
dc.identifier.issn 2753-3174 (Print) ISSN 2753-3182 (Online)
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.31920/2753-3182/2022/v1n2a7
dc.identifier.uri http://ir.gsu.ac.zw:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/91
dc.description.abstract Traditionally, southern Matabeleland is a cattle-producing region of Zimbabwe, punctuated by crop farming as key livelihood strategies. With the increasingly rampaging climate change effects on rain-fed agriculture, dwindling grazing pastures and competing ecosystem-based livelihoods, agricultural communities have diversified into artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASM) in the same region. This practice has brought conflicting livelihood strategies together in what scholars describe as the tragedy of ecosystem services. Artisanal mining, rain- fed agriculture, as well as irrigation-based farming are ecosystem-based rural livelihoods for coping with vulnerability of rural communities in drought prone areas. Scantily regulated, ASM often negatively affects other land-use activities, to the detriment of sustainable livelihoods and food security. The article explored the convergence of communal farming and ASM, and analysed the perspectives of ASM among agricultural communities in Umzingwane district of southern Matabeleland. A qualitative approach and case study design was used alongside purposive sampling technique to select the study area and the study participants. Data collection instrument triangulation strengthened the quality of data and validity of findings. The study concludes ASM and small- scale irrigation and communal farming are paradoxical, pulling together and apart. On one hand, proceeds from artisanal-gold-mining pay for labour in rain- fed communal and irrigation farming while surprisingly artisanal gold miners provide a major market for irrigation produce. However, ASM is notorious for competing and degrading farming ecosystems in pursuit of sustainable livelihoods. This manifests through encroaching ASM activities that elbow irrigation and communal farmers from fertile lands, threatening livelihoods and food security in Umzingwane district. Results show there exists embedded complementarity among irrigation, rain-fed and ASM despite conflicting regulatory frameworks. The article recommends the harmonisation of policies to build on this relationship while abating the negative competitive aspects between the livelihood strategies to strengthen the synergies for the sustainability of the two. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Adonis & Abbey en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries African Journal of Public Administration and Environmental Studies (AJOPAES);Volume 1, Number 2, December 2022 Pp 171-199
dc.subject Artisanal small-scale mining; irrigation farming; competing livelihoods, conflict en_US
dc.title The Competing Nature-Based Livelihood-Strategies: Artisanal Small-Scale Mining (ASM) Perspectives in Agricultural-Communities in Umzingwane District, Zimbabwe en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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