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Worrying cadmium and lead levels in a commonly cultivated vegetable irrigated with river water in Zimbabwe

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dc.contributor.author Tibugari, Handsen
dc.contributor.author Mafere, Gerald
dc.contributor.author Dube, Sinikiwe
dc.contributor.author Chakavarika, Murawu
dc.contributor.author Mandumbu, Ronald
dc.contributor.author Musara, Joseph P.
dc.contributor.author Mapuranga, Rangarirai
dc.contributor.author Gumbo, Tapiwa
dc.contributor.author Banda, Annabel
dc.contributor.author Mathema, Ndabanye
dc.contributor.author Goche, Tatenda
dc.contributor.author Zvigumbu, Bernard M.
dc.contributor.author Mpofu, Nkosentsha
dc.date.accessioned 2022-10-26T17:39:28Z
dc.date.available 2022-10-26T17:39:28Z
dc.date.issued 2020-08-10
dc.identifier.citation Handsen Tibugari, Gerald Mafere, Sinikiwe Dube, Murawu Chakavarika, Ronald Mandumbu, Joseph P. Musara, Rangarirai Mapuranga, Tapiwa Gumbo, Annabel Banda, Ndabanye Mathema, Tatenda Goche, Bernard M. Zvigumbu & Nkosentsha Mpofu | (2020) Worrying cadmium and lead levels in a commonly cultivated vegetable irrigated with river water in Zimbabwe, Cogent Biology, 6:1, 1802814, DOI: 10.1080/23312025.2020.1802814 en_US
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1080/23312025.2020.1802814
dc.identifier.uri http://ir.gsu.ac.zw:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/62
dc.description.abstract Vegetable cultivation using river water, which may be polluted with heavy metals, can cause health problems to consumers. A study to establish cadmium and lead levels in water from Msasa, Manyame; Mukuvisi and Nyatsime Rivers was conducted in 2019. A questionnaire survey involving 105 randomly selected urban vegetable growers was conducted to examine farmer knowledge of the potential of polluted water to contaminate produce through heavy metals. Water, soil and vegetable samples were also collected and analysed for heavy metal presence using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that some farmers (62%) were aware that wastewater could contain heavy metals. The majority of farmers (67%) applied phosphate-based fertilisers, a potential source of cadmium. Tested at P < 0.05, the results showed that sampled water from the four sites failed to meet the Standards Association of Zimbabwe 5560 (1997) standards. Cadmium tissue concentration from wastewater from Msasa and Manyame rivers was 1.3 and 1.17 mg g−1 respectively, which were 59 and 65 times higher than 0.02 mg g−1 from the control. Water from Manyame and Nyatsime rivers contains levels of heavy metals which exceed the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) safety guidelines. Farmers need to be educated on health hazards from contaminated wastewater. Enforcing regulations on effluent disposal, licencing of vegetable vendors and labelling of vegetables with information on source of water used to irrigate the crop can help reduce exposure of unsuspecting vegetable consumers. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Cogent OA, part of Taylor & Francis Group en_US
dc.subject vegetable production; polluted river water; heavy metals; cadmium; lead; atomic absorption spectrophotometry en_US
dc.title Worrying cadmium and lead levels in a commonly cultivated vegetable irrigated with river water in Zimbabwe en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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